Patterns of harm reduction service utilization and HIV incidence among people who inject drugs in Ukraine: A two-part latent profile analysis

Danielle C. Ompad, Jiayu Wang, Konstantin Dumchev, Julia Barska, Maria Samko, Oleksandr Zeziulin, Tetiana Saliuk, Olga Varetska, Jack DeHovitz

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background Program utilization patterns are described within a large network of harm reduction service providers in Ukraine. The relationship between utilization patterns and HIV incidence is determined among people who inject drugs (PWID) controlling for oblast-level HIV incidence and treatment/syringe coverage. Methods Data were extracted from the network's monitoring and evaluation database (January 2011–September 2014, n = 327,758 clients). Latent profile analysis was used to determine harm reduction utilization patterns using the number of HIV tests received annually and the number of condoms, syringes, and services (i.e., information and counseling sessions) received monthly over a year. Cox proportional hazards regression determined the relations between HIV seroconversion and utilization class membership. Results In the final 4-class model, class 1 (34.0% of clients) received 0.1 HIV tests, 1.3 syringes, 0.6 condom and minimal counseling and information sessions per month; class 2 (33.6%) received 8.6 syringes, 3.2 condoms, and 0.5 HIV tests and counseling and information sessions; class 3 (19.1%) received 1 HIV test, 11.9 syringes, 4.3 condoms, and 0.7 information and counseling sessions; class 4 (13.3%) received 1 HIV test, 26.1 syringes, 10.3 condoms, and 1.8 information and 1.9 counseling sessions. Class 4 clients had significantly decreased risk for HIV seroconversion as compared to those in class 1 after controlling for oblast-level characteristics. Conclusion Injection drug use continues to be a major mode of HIV transmission in Ukraine, making evaluation of harm reduction efforts in reducing HIV incidence among PWID critical. These analyses suggest that receiving more syringes and condoms decreased risk of HIV. Scaling up HIV testing and harm reduction services is warranted.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)7-15
Number of pages9
JournalInternational Journal of Drug Policy
StatePublished - May 1 2017


  • HIV
  • Harm reduction
  • Injection drug use
  • Needle and syringe programs
  • Opiates
  • Ukraine

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Health Policy


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