Pension reform and self-employment in Latin America

Juan Pablo Martinez Guzman, Travis St. Clair

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Public pension systems in Latin America have historically suffered from low coverage, with a relatively small percentage of the labor force eligible for benefits in retirement. In recent years, many governments have implemented reforms aimed at expanding the percentage of citizens who are eligible for benefits. In this paper we classify and evaluate pension reforms in four Latin American countries, focusing specifically on policies aimed at expanding coverage among the large share of Latin Americans who operate as self-employed workers. The reforms that we examine range from those linked to simplified tax regimes to those that provide pension-specific subsidies. With the exception of a 2006 reform in Costa Rica that subsidized pension contributions at progressive rates, we find no evidence that any of these reforms increased coverage. Our results highlight the opportunity costs to low-income workers of paying into the system, which include forgoing eligibility for less generous, non-contributory pensions.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2230-2254
Number of pages25
JournalReview of Development Economics
Issue number4
StatePublished - Nov 2021


  • Latin America
  • poverty alleviation
  • public pensions
  • savings rates
  • self-employment

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Geography, Planning and Development
  • Development


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