Perfect and imperfect real-time monitoring in a minimum-effort game

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


This paper presents the results from a minimum-effort game in which individuals can observe the choices of others in real time. We find that under perfect monitoring almost all groups coordinate at the payoff-dominant equilibrium. However, when individuals can only observe the actions of their immediate neighbors in a circle network, monitoring improves neither coordination nor efficiency relative to a baseline treatment without real-time monitoring. We argue that the inefficacy of imperfect monitoring is due to information uncertainty, that is, uncertainty about the correct interpretation of a neighbor's actions. Information uncertainty prevents individuals from inferring safely that their group has managed to coordinate from the available information.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)71-88
Number of pages18
JournalExperimental Economics
Issue number1
StatePublished - Mar 2012


  • Cheap talk
  • Circle network
  • Imperfect monitoring
  • Information uncertainty
  • Real-time monitoring

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Economics, Econometrics and Finance (miscellaneous)


Dive into the research topics of 'Perfect and imperfect real-time monitoring in a minimum-effort game'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this