Performance evaluation of copper and graphene nanoribbons in 2-D NoC structures

Ruturaj Pujari, Shaloo Rakheja

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Abstract

In this paper, performance models of different network-on-chip (NoC) topologies are developed by a) incorporating physical models of the interconnect structures, and b) specifying the microarchitecture of cores and on-chip routers at 15 nm technology node for a clock frequency of 4 GHz. By incorporating device and interconnect models, we implement a cross-layer design and optimization of the performance of NoC architectures. The performance modeling is carried out for mesh, torus, and flattened butterfly (FBFLY) NoC topologies by focusing on global copper (Cu/low-κ) and graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) as the interconnect infrastructure for inter-core communication. The findings show that mesh NoCs incorporated with Cu/low-κ or GNRs have the same latency metrics, while for torus and FBFLY NoCs, the high latency of GNR interconnects is prohibitive. Mesh, torus, and FBFLY topologies with GNRs as inter-core interconnects result in lower interconnect energy dissipation compared to Cu/low-κ interconnects. The worst-case delay for mesh NoCs is equally governed by the on-chip router delay and inter-core interconnects delay but for torus and FBFLY NoCs, delay form inter-core interconnects particularly limits their performance. Therefore, ignoring the interconnect latency in this analysis overestimates the NoC performance significantly. We also determine the optimal network size up to which networks on-chip (NoCs) with GNR interconnects give lower energy-delay product (EDP) when compared against Cu/low-κ interconnects. The results obtained in this paper are representative of on-die router implementations at 15 nm technology node, which can be used to predict the realistic performance of various NoC topologies.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationProceedings of the 18th International Symposium on Quality Electronic Design, ISQED 2017
PublisherIEEE Computer Society
Pages353-359
Number of pages7
ISBN (Electronic)9781509054046
DOIs
StatePublished - May 2 2017
Event18th International Symposium on Quality Electronic Design, ISQED 2017 - Santa Clara, United States
Duration: Mar 14 2017Mar 15 2017

Publication series

NameProceedings - International Symposium on Quality Electronic Design, ISQED
ISSN (Print)1948-3287
ISSN (Electronic)1948-3295

Other

Other18th International Symposium on Quality Electronic Design, ISQED 2017
CountryUnited States
CitySanta Clara
Period3/14/173/15/17

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Hardware and Architecture
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering
  • Safety, Risk, Reliability and Quality

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  • Cite this

    Pujari, R., & Rakheja, S. (2017). Performance evaluation of copper and graphene nanoribbons in 2-D NoC structures. In Proceedings of the 18th International Symposium on Quality Electronic Design, ISQED 2017 (pp. 353-359). [7918341] (Proceedings - International Symposium on Quality Electronic Design, ISQED). IEEE Computer Society. https://doi.org/10.1109/ISQED.2017.7918341