Performance limits and geometric properties of array localization

Yanjun Han, Yuan Shen, Xiao Ping Zhang, Moe Z. Win, Huadong Meng

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Location-aware networks are of great importance and interest in both civil and military applications. This paper determines the localization accuracy of an agent, which is equipped with an antenna array and localizes itself using wireless measurements with anchor nodes, in a far-field environment. In view of the Cramér-Rao bound, we first derive the localization information for static scenarios and demonstrate that such information is a weighed sum of Fisher information matrices from each anchor-antenna measurement pair. Each matrix can be further decomposed into two parts: 1) a distance part with intensity proportional to the squared baseband effective bandwidth of the transmitted signal and 2) a direction part with intensity associated with the normalized anchor-antenna visual angle. Moreover, in dynamic scenarios, we show that the Doppler shift contributes additional direction information, with intensity determined by the agent velocity and the root mean squared time duration of the transmitted signal. In addition, two measures are proposed to evaluate the localization performance of wireless networks with different anchor-agent and arrayantenna geometries, and both formulae and simulations are provided for typical anchor deployments and antenna arrays.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number2511778
Pages (from-to)1054-1075
Number of pages22
JournalIEEE Transactions on Information Theory
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 1 2016


  • Array localization
  • Cramér-Rao bound
  • Doppler shift
  • Geometric property
  • Wireless network localization

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Information Systems
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Library and Information Sciences


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