Periodontal inflammatory conditions among gutka chewers and non-chewers with and without prediabetes

Fawad Javed, Howard C. Tenenbaum, Getulio Nogueira-Filho, Nasser Nooh, Fernanda O'Bello Correa, Saman Warnakulasuriya, Ananda P. Dasanayake, Khalid Al-Hezaimi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: It is known that gutka chewing jeopardizes periodontal health; however, severity of periodontal inflammation in gutka chewers with and without prediabetes remains unknown. The aim of this study is to investigate the association of periodontal inflammatory conditions with gutka chewing and prediabetes. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, the effect of gutka use on periodontal health is investigated among 44 individuals with prediabetes and 44 without prediabetes. Demographic information regarding age, sex, duration of prediabetes, and gutka-chewing habits was collected using a questionnaire. Periodontal inflammatory conditions (plaque index [PI], bleeding on probing [BOP], probing depth [PD], marginal bone loss [MBL]) and fasting blood glucose levels (FBGLs) were recorded. Group differences in periodontal inflammatory parameters were tested using univariate and multivariable analyses (α ≤5%). Results: Periodontal inflammatory parameters (PI, BOP, and PD) were significantly higher in individuals with prediabetes irrespective of gutka-chewing habit (P <0.05). Odds of periodontal inflammation in individuals with prediabetes were nine times higher than in healthy controls (95% confidence interval [CI] = 3.4 to 23.6). Gutka chewing alone, chewing among individuals with prediabetes, and chewing among healthy controls did not significantly increase the odds of periodontal inflammatory conditions. Individuals with prediabetes were significantly more likely to have periodontal inflammation than individuals without prediabetes even after controlling for sex and gutka chewing (odds ratio = 13.2; 95% CI = 4.3 to 40.7). Conclusion: In medically healthy individuals, periodontal inflammatory conditions are worse in gutka chewers compared to non-chewers; in patients with prediabetes, the severity of periodontal inflammation is governed by hyperglycemia when compared to habitual gutka usage.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1158-1164
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of periodontology
Issue number8
StatePublished - Aug 2013


  • Alveolar bone loss
  • Areca
  • Diabetes mellitus
  • Inflammation
  • Pre-diabetic state
  • Tobacco, smokeless

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Periodontics


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