Photodynamic therapy based on graphene and MXene in cancer theranostics

Arianna Gazzi, Laura Fusco, Anooshay Khan, Davide Bedognetti, Barbara Zavan, Flavia Vitale, Acelya Yilmazer, Lucia Gemma Delogu

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Cancer is one of the leading causes of death in the world. Therefore, the development of new advanced and targeted strategies in cancer research for early diagnosis and treatment has become essential to improve diagnosis outcomes and reduce therapy side effects. Graphene and more recently, MXene, are the main representatives of the family of two-dimensional (2D) materials and are widely studied as multimodal nanoplatforms for cancer diagnostics and treatment, in particular leveraging their potentialities as photodynamic therapeutic agents. Indeed, due to their irreplaceable physicochemical properties, they are virtuous allies for photodynamic therapy (PDT) in combination with bioimaging, photothermal therapy, as well as drug and gene delivery. In this review, the rapidly progressing literature related to the use of these promising 2D materials for cancer theranostics is described in detail, highlighting all their possible future advances in PDT.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number295
JournalFrontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
Issue numberOCT
StatePublished - 2019


  • Graphene
  • MXene
  • Nanomedicine
  • Photodynamic therapy
  • Theranostics

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biotechnology
  • Bioengineering
  • Histology
  • Biomedical Engineering


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