Physical Objects as Bidirectional User Interface Elements

Dan Rosenfeld, Michael Zawadzki, Jeremi Sudol, Ken Perlin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The development of Planar Manipulator Display (PMD) for the use of physical objects as bidirectional user interface elements is discussed. PMD uses movable physical objects as a means of human-computer interaction. PMD addresses the poor match between standard computer interfaces and human spatial awareness. The system can be distinguished from the standard interface by its support of multihanded and multiuser interaction, suiting the device for collaborative application. Other PMD applications include simulations of urban traffic flow, theatre staging studies, and active tabletop games.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)44-49
Number of pages6
JournalIEEE Computer Graphics and Applications
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2004

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Software
  • Computer Graphics and Computer-Aided Design


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