### Abstract

A major goal of helioseismology is the three-dimensional reconstruction of the three velocity components of convective flows in the solar interior from sets of wave travel-time measurements. For small amplitude flows, the forward problem is described in good approximation by a large system of convolution equations. The input observations are highly noisy random vectors with a known dense covariance matrix. This leads to a large statistical linear inverse problem. Whereas for deterministic linear inverse problems several computationally efficient minimax optimal regularization methods exist, only one minimax-optimal linear estimator exists for statistical linear inverse problems: the Pinsker estimator. However, it is often computationally inefficient because it requires a singular value decomposition of the forward operator or it is not applicable because of an unknown noise covariance matrix, so it is rarely used for real-world problems. These limitations do not apply in helioseismology. We present a simplified proof of the optimality properties of the Pinsker estimator and show that it yields significantly better reconstructions than traditional inversion methods used in helioseismology, i.e. regularized least squares (Tikhonov regularization) and SOLA (approximate inverse) methods. Moreover, we discuss the incorporation of the mass conservation constraint in the Pinsker scheme using staggered grids. With this improvement we can reconstruct not only horizontal, but also vertical velocity components that are much smaller in amplitude.

Original language | English (US) |
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Article number | 105002 |

Journal | Inverse Problems |

Volume | 32 |

Issue number | 10 |

DOIs | |

State | Published - Aug 5 2016 |

### Keywords

- helioseismology
- pinsker estimator
- statistical inverse problem

### ASJC Scopus subject areas

- Theoretical Computer Science
- Signal Processing
- Mathematical Physics
- Computer Science Applications
- Applied Mathematics

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## Cite this

*Inverse Problems*,

*32*(10), [105002]. https://doi.org/10.1088/0266-5611/32/10/105002