This chapter examines the role of spontaneous and strategic planning in turning an individual’s knowledge into action. The authors introduce specific if-then plans regarding when, where, and how to act and discuss how such implementation intentions (IIs) support goal attainment. They then differentiate two ways in which IIs can be formed on the basis of goal-related knowledge. For spontaneously formed IIs they highlight the importance of the accessibility of goal-relevant knowledge. For strategically formed IIs they point to the importance of systematically selecting relevant goal-relevant knowledge and translating it into IIs by using the Mental Contrasting with Implementation Intentions (MCII) self-regulation strategy. The interplay of automatic and reflective processes is a focus of discussion. The authors suggest that strategic planning of the automatic activation of goal-relevant knowledge can support reflective decision-making and goal-directed actions through use of context-sensitive reminders.