Poly-club-drug use among gay and bisexual men: A longitudinal analysis

Perry N. Halkitis, Joseph J. Palamar, Preetika Pandey Mukherjee

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objective: We sought to delineate patterns of poly-club-drug use among gay and bisexual men. Data were drawn from a large-scale 12-month longitudinal investigation of club drug use and sexual behavior among 450 racially, ethnically, and geographically diverse sample of gay and bisexual men in New York City. Methods: Using community-based sampling, we recruited the sample from numerous venues and assessed the self-reported use of five drugs and their relation to one another: cocaine, ecstasy, GHB, ketamine, and methamphetamine. Multivariate hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) was utilized to examine associations of usage over the 12-month data collection period. Results: Use of the five club drugs was highly related as noted by both parametric and non-parametric analyses of the cross-sectional data. Patterns of use over time also indicated significant longitudinal associations. Specifically, the use of methamphetamine over time was related to both the use of ecstasy and GHB. Conclusions: The analyses suggest that usage patterns of individual club drugs such as methamphetamine, ecstasy, and GHB among gay and bisexual men are highly related across time. These findings hold implications for the treatment approaches that are utilized to address substance abuse in this segment of the population, and suggest that practitioners focus on the totality of the substance abuse behaviors and not necessarily individual drugs which are administered.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)153-160
Number of pages8
JournalDrug and alcohol dependence
Issue number2-3
StatePublished - Jul 10 2007


  • Club drugs
  • Gay and bisexual men
  • Longitudinal
  • Poly-drug use

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Toxicology
  • Pharmacology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health
  • Pharmacology (medical)


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