Poppers and PrEP: Use of Pre-exposure Prophylaxis Among Men Who Have Sex with Men Who Use Inhaled Nitrites

H. Rhodes Hambrick, Su Hyun Park, John A. Schneider, Kenneth H. Mayer, Adam W. Carrico, Scott E. Sherman, Dustin T. Duncan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Men who have sex with men (MSM) commonly use inhaled nitrites, or poppers, though their use is a risk factor HIV seroconversion. Pre-exposure prophylaxis, or PrEP, is effective for HIV prevention, but is not widely used, and little is known regarding PrEP use and acceptability among MSM who use inhaled nitrites. We surveyed 580 MSM in Paris, France in 2016 about popper use, sexual behaviors including condomless anal intercourse (CAI), serosorting, and sexual positioning, PrEP use, PrEP candidacy, and interest in alternate PrEP delivery modalities. We included 444 HIV negative participants for the current study. 46.2% reported popper use in the prior 3 months. Using multivariate adjusted logistic regression, we found that popper users were more likely than non-users to consider themselves candidates for PrEP [adjusted relative risk ratio (aRRR) = 2.73; 95% CI 1.54–4.83], but they were not more likely to be current (aRRR = 1.54; 95% CI 0.71–3.33) or past (aRRR = 1.37; 95% CI 0.44–4.28) PrEP users. Mediation analyses indicated that increased CAI and serosorting partly explained the relationship between popper use and PrEP candidacy. There was considerable interest in alternate proposed PrEP delivery modalities, particularly long-acting injectable PrEP [adjusted risk ratio (aRR) = 1.43; 95% CI 1.15–1.79].

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)3658-3672
Number of pages15
JournalAIDS and Behavior
Issue number11
StatePublished - Nov 1 2018


  • HIV prevention
  • Inhaled nitrites
  • Men who have sex with men
  • Poppers
  • PrEP

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Social Psychology
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Infectious Diseases


Dive into the research topics of 'Poppers and PrEP: Use of Pre-exposure Prophylaxis Among Men Who Have Sex with Men Who Use Inhaled Nitrites'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this