Objective To report outcomes of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-ultrasound fusion-targeted biopsy (MRF-TB) and 12-core systematic biopsy (SB) over a 26-month period in men with prior negative prostate biopsy. Materials and Methods Between June 2012 and August 2014, 210 men presenting to our institution for prostate biopsy with ≥1 prior negative biopsy underwent multiparametric MRI followed by MRF-TB and SB and were entered into a prospective database. Clinical characteristics, maximum mpMRI suspicion scores (mSS), and biopsy results were queried from the database, and the detection rates of Gleason ≥7 prostate cancer (PCa) and overall PCa were compared between biopsy techniques using McNemar's test. Results Forty seven (29%) of 161 men meeting inclusion criteria (mean age, 65 ± 8 years; mean prostate-specific antigen, 8.9 ± 8.9) were found to have PCa. MRF-TB and SB had overall cancer detection rates (CDRs) of 21.7% and 18.6% (P =.36), respectively, and CDR for Gleason score (GS) ≥7 disease of 14.9% and 9.3% (P =.02), respectively. Of 26 men with GS ≥7 disease, MRF-TB detected 24 (92.3%) whereas SB detected 15 (57.7%; P <.01). Using UCSF-CAPRA criteria, only 1 man was restratified from low risk to higher risk based on SB results compared to MRF-TB alone. Among men with mSS <4, 72% of detected cancers were low risk by UCSF-CAPRA criteria. Conclusion In men with previous negative biopsies and persistent suspicion of PCa, SB contributes little to the detection of GS ≥7 disease by MRF-TB, and avoidance of SB bears consideration. Based on the low likelihood of detecting GS ≥7 cancer and overall low-risk features of PCa in men with mSS <4, limiting biopsy to men with mSS ≥4 warrants further investigation.
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