Preschool and primary locus of control scale: Is it ready for use?

Sharon D. Herzberger, Jean A. Linney, Edward Seidman, Julian Rappaport

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Two experiments investigated the psychometric properties of the Preschool and Primary Nowicki-Strickland Internal-External Control Scale (PPNS-IE). The test was administered to 286 lower-middle-class and 158 middle-class 1st-3rd graders. Test administration procedures differed somewhat for 1 sample; they were identical to original procedures for the 2nd sample. Although all items met the standard endorsement frequency criterion, no item reached minimal levels of internal consistency in either sample. Factor-analytic procedures provided no evidence of reliable subscales. A reexamination of the data reported by S. Nowicki and M. P. Duke showed that even with their sample, many of the items failed to reach minimal levels of reliability. Further scale development should be pursued before the external validation of the PPNS-IE is attempted. (10 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved).

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)320-324
Number of pages5
JournalDevelopmental psychology
Issue number3
StatePublished - May 1979


  • internal consistency & stability, Preschool & Primary Nowicki-Strickland Internal-External Control Scale, 1st-3rd graders

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Demography
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology
  • Life-span and Life-course Studies


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