Present 2020: Text expanding on the checklist for proper reporting of evidence in sport and exercise nutrition trials

James A. Betts, Javier T. Gonzalez, Louise M. Burke, Graeme L. Close, Ina Garthe, Lewis J. James, Asker E. Jeukendrup, James P. Morton, David C. Nieman, Peter Peeling, Stuart M. Phillips, Trent Stellingwerff, Luc J.C. van Loon, Clyde Williams, Kathleen Woolf, Ron Maughan, Greg Atkinson

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Some readers may not have access to the full paper, so a properly formatted and well-written abstract is imperative. Authors should give priority to information about the current study rather than using the abstract for an extensive background or rationale. 2a Methods: Key information regarding the study design, methods, and population should be summarized to enable broad understanding of the study from the abstract. 2b Results: Readers are interested in extracting key data that reflect the main findings of the study. The abstract should present data (e.g., the absolute magnitude of values and the size/precision of effects—specifying which measures of central tendency and variability are stated) rather than simply stating the presence, absence, or direction of effects. The presentation of p values or similar inferential statistics is no substitute for reporting actual data (Maughan, 2004). 2c Conclusion: Priority should be given to the reporting of results as per the previous section, with only a brief concluding statement thereafter. A concise conclusion based on what was actually measured in the study is preferred to speculative interpretations, with cautious use of language to avoid hyperbole or improper inference of causality (Brown et al., 2013). It is not appropriate or necessary to identify further research priorities here.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2-13
Number of pages12
JournalInternational Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
Issue number1
StatePublished - 2020


  • Exercise performance
  • Exercise physiology
  • Sport physiology

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
  • Nutrition and Dietetics


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