Prevalence and classification of HIV-associated oral lesions

Lauren L. Patton, J. A. Phelan, F. J. Ramos-Gomez, W. Nittayananta, C. H. Shiboski, T. L. Mbuguye

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


OBJECTIVES: An International Workshop addressed the prevalence and classification of HIV/AIDS associated oral lesions. DESIGN: Five questions provided the framework for discussion and literature review. What is the prevalence of oral lesions in children and adults? Should the accepted classification of HIV-related oral lesions be modified in the light of recent findings? Why is there a gender difference in the prevalence of oral lesions in developed and developing countries? Are there unusual lesions present in developing countries? Is there any association between modes of transmission and the prevalence of oral lesions? RESULTS: Workshop discussion emphasized the urgent need for assistance in the development of expertise to obtain accurate global prevalence data for HIV-associated oral lesions. Oral candidiasis has been consistently reported as the most prevalent HIV-associated oral lesion in all ages. Penicilliosis marneffei, a newly described fungal infection, has emerged in South-east Asia. Oral hairy leukoplakia and Kaposi's sarcoma appear to be associated with male gender and male-to-male HIV transmission risk behaviours. These lesions occur only rarely in children. CONCLUSIONS: Additional prevalence data are needed from developing countries prior to substantially altering the 1993 ECC/WHO Classification of oral lesions associated with adult HIV infection. The workshop confirmed current oral disease diagnostic criteria.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)98-109
Number of pages12
JournalOral Diseases
Issue numberSUPPL. 2
StatePublished - 2002


  • Epidemiology
  • HIV
  • Kaposi's sarcoma
  • Oral candidiasis
  • Oral hairy leukoplakia
  • Oral mucosa

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Otorhinolaryngology
  • General Dentistry


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