Prevalence and correlates of crack-cocaine injection among young injection drug users in the United States, 1997-1999

Scott S. Santibanez, Richard S. Garfein, Andrea Swartzendruber, Peter R. Kerndt, Edward Morse, Danielle Ompad, Steffanie Strathdee, Ian T. Williams, Samuel R. Friedman, Lawrence J. Ouellet

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Objectives: We estimated prevalence and identified correlates of crack-cocaine injection among young injection drug users in the United States. Methods: We analyzed data from the second Collaborative Injection Drug Users Study (CIDUS II), a 1997-1999 cohort study of 18-30-year-old, street-recruited injection drug users from six US cities. Results: Crack-cocaine injection was reported by 329 (15%) of 2198 participants. Prevalence varied considerably by site (range, 1.5-28.0%). No participants injected only crack-cocaine. At four sites where crack-cocaine injection prevalence was greater than 10%, recent (past 6 months) crack-cocaine injection was correlated with recent daily injection and sharing of syringes, equipment, and drug solution. Lifetime crack-cocaine injection was correlated with using shooting galleries, initiating others into drug injection, and having serologic evidence of hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus infection. Conclusions: Crack-cocaine injection may be a marker for high-risk behaviors that can be used to direct efforts to prevent HIV and other blood-borne viral infections.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)227-233
Number of pages7
JournalDrug and alcohol dependence
Volume77
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 7 2005

Keywords

  • Drugs
  • Epidemiology
  • HIV/AIDS
  • Hepatitis
  • Substance abuse
  • Urban health

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Toxicology
  • Pharmacology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health
  • Pharmacology (medical)

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    Santibanez, S. S., Garfein, R. S., Swartzendruber, A., Kerndt, P. R., Morse, E., Ompad, D., Strathdee, S., Williams, I. T., Friedman, S. R., & Ouellet, L. J. (2005). Prevalence and correlates of crack-cocaine injection among young injection drug users in the United States, 1997-1999. Drug and alcohol dependence, 77(3), 227-233. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2004.08.020