Prevalence and correlates of depression among black and Latino stroke survivors with uncontrolled hypertension: A cross-sectional study

Adebayo O. Ogunlade, Stephen K. Williams, Jennifer Joseph, Deborah O. Onakomaiya, Joseph P. Eimicke, Jeanne A. Teresi, Olajide Williams, Gbenga Ogedegbe, Tanya M. Spruill

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objective To examine the prevalence and correlates of depression in a cohort of black and Hispanic stroke survivors with uncontrolled hypertension. Setting Baseline survey data from 10 stroke centres across New York City. Participants Black and Hispanic stroke survivors with uncontrolled hypertension (n=450). Outcome measures Depressive symptoms were assessed with the 8-item Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) measure. Depression was defined as a PROMIS score ≥55. Other data collected included clinical factors, health-related quality of life (EuroQoL five dimensions (EQ-5D)), functional independence (Barthel Index, BI), stroke-related disability (Modified Rankin Score), physical function (PROMIS Physical Function) and executive functioning (Frontal Assessment Battery). Results The mean age was 61.7±11.1 years, 44% of participants were women and 51% were black. Poststroke depression was noted in 32% of the cohort. Examining bivariate relationships, patients with depression were observed to have poorer function and quality of life as evidenced by significantly lower PROMIS physical function scores (36.9±8.32 vs 43.4±10.19, p<0.001); BI scores (79.9±19.2 vs 88.1±15.1, p<0.001); EQ-5D scores (0.66±0.24 vs 0.83±0.17, p<0.001) and higher Rankin scores (2.10±1.00 vs 1.46±1.01, p<0.001) compared with those without depression. Multivariate (model adjusted) significant correlates of depression included lower self-reported quality of life (OR=0.02 (CI 0.004 to 0.12) being younger (OR=0.94; 95% CI 0.91 to 0.97); not married (OR=0.46; CI 0.24 to 0.89)); and foreign-born (OR=3.34, 95% CI 1.4 to 7.97). There was a trend for higher comorbidity to be uniquely associated with depression (≥3 comorbid conditions, OR=1.49, 95% CI 1.00 to 2.23). Conclusions Poststroke depression is common among black and Hispanic stroke survivors with higher rates noted among foreign-born patients and those with high comorbidity. These findings highlight the importance of screening for depression in minority stroke survivors. Trial registration number Unique identifier: NCT01070056.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere040461
JournalBMJ open
Issue number12
StatePublished - Dec 8 2020


  • depression & mood disorders
  • hypertension
  • stroke

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)


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