BACKGROUND: Limited evidence exists about the prevalence and incidence of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in individuals with diabetes in the U.S. We aimed to address such knowledge gaps using a nationally representative study dataset.
METHOD: We conducted a secondary analysis from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) (1996-2018). The sample for examining the prevalence of MCI was14,988, with 4,192 (28.0%) having diabetes, while the sample for the incidence was 21,824, with 1,534 (28.0%) having diabetes.
RESULTS: Participants with diabetes had a higher prevalence of MCI than those without diabetes (19.9% vs. 14.8%; odds ratio [95% confidence interval] (OR[95%CI]): 1.468 [1.337, 1.611], p<.001). The incidence of MCI in participants with/without newly diagnosed diabetes was 42.9% vs. 31.6% after a mean 10-year follow-up, with the incidence rate ratio (IRR) [95%CI] (1.314 [1.213, 1.424], p<.001). Newly diagnosed diabetes was associated with elevated risks of MCI compared with non-diabetes, with the uncontrolled hazard ratio (HR) [95%CI] (1.498 [1.405, 1.597], p<.001).
CONCLUSIONS: Using a nationally representative study data in the U.S., participants with diabetes had a higher prevalence and incidence of MCI than those without diabetes. Findings show the importance of developing interventions tailored to the needs of individuals with diabetes and cognitive impairment.