Primary Frequency Response in Capacity Expansion with Energy Storage

Miguel Carrion, Yury Dvorkin, Hrvoje Pandzic

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Massive integration of renewable energy resources calls for new operating and planning paradigms, which address reduced controllability and increased uncertainty on the generation side. On the other hand, emerging energy storage technologies can provide additional flexibility. Therefore, generation and storage expansion models need to be coordinated to ensure sufficiency of system-wide response capabilities within different regulation intervals. This paper proposes a coordinated generation and storage expansion formulation considering primary frequency response constraints. This is a stochastic mixed-integer linear program solved using an off-the-shelf solver. The proposed formulation is compared to the case when primary frequency response is neglected. The case study performed for an eight-zone ISO New England test system quantifies the value of energy storage simultaneously providing primary frequency response and spatiooral arbitrage.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1824-1835
Number of pages12
JournalIEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Issue number2
StatePublished - Mar 2018


  • Energy storage
  • generation expansion
  • mixed-integer linear programming
  • primary frequency response
  • unit commitment

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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