Primordial black holes in a dimensionally reduced universe

Athanasios G. Tzikas, Piero Nicolini, Jonas Mureika, Bernard Carr

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


We investigate the spontaneous creation of primordial black holes in a lower-dimensional expanding early universe. We use the no-boundary proposal to construct instanton solutions for both the background and a black hole nucleated inside this background. The resulting creation rate could lead to a significant population of primordial black holes during the lower dimensional phase. We also consider the subsequent evaporation of these dimensionally reduced black holes and find that their temperature increases with mass, whereas it decreases with mass for 4-dimensional black holes. This means that they could leave stable sub-Planckian relics, which might in principle provide the dark matter.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number033
JournalJournal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics
Issue number12
StatePublished - Dec 19 2018


  • primordial black holes
  • quantum black holes
  • quantum gravity phenomenology

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics


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