Principles of forward osmosis

Wafa Suwaileh, Daniel Johnson, Nidal Hilal

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


Forward osmosis (FO) is a process driven by differences in osmotic pressure between a feed and draw solution, as opposed to many other membrane processes, such as reverse osmosis (RO), where hydraulic pressure is applied. The FO process needs a semipermeable membrane that segregates the feed solution, with relatively low osmotic pressure and a more concentrated draw solution. As the main operating cost for systems such as RO is the energy needed to pump solutions at high pressure, it is generally expected that FO will have much lowered energy costs. Due to water permeation across the membrane, the concentration of the feed solution will increase over time, whereas the draw solution becomes diluted.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationOsmosis Engineering
Number of pages18
ISBN (Electronic)9780128210161
StatePublished - Jan 1 2021


  • Diffusion
  • Draw solution
  • FO
  • Feed solution
  • Forward osmosis
  • Osmosis
  • Osmosis engineering
  • Water treatment

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Engineering
  • General Chemical Engineering


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