The tumor suppressor prostate apoptosis response-4 (Par-4) has recently turned ‘twenty-five’. Beyond its indisputable role as an apoptosis inducer, an increasing and sometimes bewildering, new roles for Par-4 are being reported. These roles include its ability to regulate autophagy, senescence, and metastasis. This growing range of responses to Par-4 is reflected by our increasing understanding of the various mechanisms through which Par-4 can function. In this review, we summarize the existing knowledge on Par-4 tumor suppressive mechanisms, and discuss how the interaction of Par-4 with different regulators influence cell fate. This review also highlights the new secretory pathway that has emerged and the likely discussion on its clinical implications.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience
- Cell Biology
- Cancer Research