Activation of colonic proteinase-activated receptor-2 (PAR-2) provokes colonic inflammation and increases mucosal permeability in mice. The mechanism of inflammation is under debate and could be neurogenic and/or the consequence of tight-junction opening with passage of exogenous pathogens into the lamina propria. The present study aimed to further characterize the inflammatory effect of PAR-2 activation by investigating: 1) the role of NO, 2) the role of afferent neurons, and 3) a possible cause and effect relationship between colonic paracellular permeability changes and mucosal inflammation. Thus, intracolonic infusion to mice of the PAR-2-activating peptide, SLIGRL, increased both myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and damage scores indicating colonic inflammation, and enhanced colonic permeability to 51Cr-EDTA from 2 to 4 h after its infusion. NO synthase inhibitors, L-NAME and aminoguanidine, as well as the neurotoxin capsaicin and NK1, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptor antagonists, SR140333 and CGRP8-37, prevented SLIGRL-induced MPO and damage score increases and permeability. In contrast, although the tight-junction blocker, 2,4,6-triaminopyrimidine, and the myosin L chain kinase inhibitor, ML-7, prevented SLIGRL-induced increase in permeability, they did not prevent MPO and damage score increases. Taken together our data show that both NO and capsaicin-sensitive afferent neurons are involved in PAR-2-mediated colonic inflammation and paracellular permeability increase. Nevertheless, the inflammation process is not a consequence of increased permeability which results at least in part from the activation of myosin L chain kinase.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Immunology and Allergy