Quantity, Quality, and Timing of Carbohydrate Intake and Blood Pressure

Stephanie S. Byun, Zara K. Mayat, Brooke Aggarwal, Niyati Parekh, Nour Makarem

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Purpose of Review: This review discusses recent evidence on the association of dietary carbohydrates (quantity, quality, and timing of intake) with hypertension (HTN) risk and out-of-clinic blood pressure (BP) measures. Recent Findings: Studies on carbohydrate quantity are inconclusive, but low carbohydrate diets may be associated with lower BP. Plant-based carbohydrate-containing foods such as fruits, vegetables, and whole grains may lower HTN risk and 24-h BP. Excessive sugar intakes from sugar-sweetened beverages are associated with higher BP levels and HTN risk, with evidence of a dose-response relationship. Preliminary data suggest that timing of carbohydrate intake may influence HTN risk and 24-h BP. Summary: The role of carbohydrate nutrition in HTN’s etiology warrants further investigation. Additional studies are needed to investigate the influence of dietary carbohydrates on HTN risk and the circadian pattern of BP, evaluate potential sex and racial/ethnic differences in these associations, and elucidate underlying mechanisms.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)270-280
Number of pages11
JournalCurrent Nutrition Reports
Issue number3
StatePublished - Sep 15 2019


  • Blood pressure
  • Carbohydrate nutrition
  • Carbohydrate quality
  • Carbohydrate quantity
  • Hypertension
  • Meal timing

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Food Science
  • Nutrition and Dietetics


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