This article presents empirically-based largescale propagation path loss models for fifthgeneration cellular network planning in the millimeter-wave spectrum, based on real-world measurements at 28 GHz and 38 GHz in New York City and Austin, Texas, respectively. We consider industry-standard path loss models used for today¿s microwave bands, and modify them to fit the propagation data measured in these millimeter-wave bands for cellular planning. Network simulations with the proposed models using a commercial planning tool show that roughly three times more base stations are required to accommodate 5G networks (cell radii up to 200 m) compared to existing 3G and 4G systems (cell radii of 500 m to 1 km) when performing path loss simulations based on arbitrary pointing angles of directional antennas. However, when directional antennas are pointed in the single best directions at the base station and mobile, coverage range is substantially improved with little increase in interference, thereby reducing the required number of 5G base stations. Capacity gains for random pointing angles are shown to be 20 times greater than today¿s fourth-generation Long Term Evolution networks, and can be further improved when using directional antennas pointed in the strongest transmit and receive directions with the help of beam combining techniques.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Computer Science Applications
- Computer Networks and Communications
- Electrical and Electronic Engineering