Reaction of N-phenyl maleimide with aminosilane monolayers

Gang Shen, Adrian Horgan, Rastislav Levicky

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Reaction of N-phenyl maleimide (NPM) with silica surfaces modified with a self-assembled monolayer of (aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (APTES) was investigated using infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), elemental analysis, and titration assays. This reaction is of interest as a test case for using amine-maleimide coupling for immobilization of biomolecules. Addition of NPM to surface APTES residues was consistently sub-stoichiometric, with typical yields of about 75% on monolayers with a coverage of 1.15 APTES residues/nm 2. Titration analysis found negligible presence of imide alkene C=C bonds in modified supports, indicating that addition of NPM to APTES proceeded via amine attack at the imide olefinic bond. FTIR measurements also revealed presence of amide bands which intensified over periods of 10 h. These observations were attributed to a slower secondary process in which APTES amines attack imide carbonyls to produce amide linkages. Stability of NPM-modified surfaces was examined under room temperature storage in pH 7 buffer up to 72 h and for 2 h exposure to buffer at temperatures up to 90 °C. It was found that stability was determined by robustness of APTES-silica attachment, with about 30% loss under the harshest conditions investigated.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)59-65
Number of pages7
JournalColloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces
Issue number1
StatePublished - May 1 2004


  • Biosensor
  • DNA
  • Glass
  • Protein
  • SAM

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biotechnology
  • Surfaces and Interfaces
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Colloid and Surface Chemistry


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