Recent advances in image reconstruction, coil sensitivity calibration, and coil array design for SMASH and generalized parallel MRI

Daniel K. Sodickson, Charles A. McKenzie, Michael A. Ohliger, Ernest N. Yeh, Mark D. Price

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Parallel magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques use spatial information from arrays of radiofrequency (RF) detector coils to accelerate imaging. A number of parallel MRI techniques have been described in recent years, and numerous clinical applications are currently being explored. The advent of practical parallel imaging presents various challenges for image reconstruction and RF system design. Recent advances in tailored SiMultaneous Acquisition of Spatial Harmonics (SMASH) image reconstructions are summarized. These advances enable robust SMASH imaging in arbitrary image planes with a wide range of coil array geometries. A generalized formalism is described which may be used to understand the relations between SMASH and SENSE, to derive typical implementations of each as special cases, and to form hybrid techniques combining some of the advantages of both. Accurate knowledge of coil sensitivities is crucial for parallel MRI, and errors in calibration represent one of the most common and the most pernicious sources of error in parallel image reconstructions. As one example, motion of the patient and/or the coil array between the sensitivity reference scan and the accelerated acquisition can lead to calibration errors and reconstruction artifacts. Self-calibrating parallel MRI approaches that address this problem by eliminating the need for external sensitivity references are reviewed. The ultimate achievable signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for parallel MRI studies is closely tied to the geometry and sensitivity patterns of the coil arrays used for spatial encoding. Several parallel imaging array designs that depart from the traditional model of overlapped adjacent loop elements are described.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)158-163
Number of pages6
JournalMagnetic Resonance Materials in Physics, Biology and Medicine
Issue number3
StatePublished - 2002


  • Parallel MRI
  • RF coil arrays
  • Rapid imaging

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biophysics
  • Radiological and Ultrasound Technology
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging


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