Recomputing with permuted operands: A concurrent error detection approach

Xiaofei Guo, Ramesh Karri

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Naturally occurring and maliciously injected faults reduce the reliability of cryptographic hardware and may leak confidential information. We develop a concurrent error detection technique (CED) called recomputing with permuted operands (REPO). We show that it is cost effective in advanced encryption standard (AES) and a secure hash function Grostl. We provide experimental results and formal proofs to show that REPO detects all single-bit and single-byte faults. Experimental results show that REPO achieves close to 100% fault coverage for multiple byte faults. The hardware and throughput overheads are compared with those of previously reported CED techniques on two Xilinx Virtex FPGAs. The hardware overhead is 12.4%-27.3%, and the throughput is 1.2-23 Gbps, depending on the AES architecture, FPGA family, and detection latency. The performance overhead ranges from 10% to 100% depending on the security level. Moreover, the proposed technique can be integrated into various block cipher modes of operation. We also discuss the limitation of REPO and its potential vulnerabilities.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number6600917
Pages (from-to)1595-1608
Number of pages14
JournalIEEE Transactions on Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems
Issue number10
StatePublished - 2013


  • Concurrent error detection
  • differential fault analysis
  • recomputing with permuted operands

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Software
  • Computer Graphics and Computer-Aided Design
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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