Recruitment, Inclusion, and Diversity in Clinical Trials

Bernadette Boden-Albala, Salina P. Waddy, Noa Appleton, Heather Kuczynski, Emily Nangle, Nina S. Parikh

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


In this chapter, we discuss the importance of diversity and the inclusion of women and racial/ethnic minority groups in clinical research as a foundation for addressing health disparities. First, we provide a brief background on the scientific and ethical significance of diversity and inclusion in clinical research. Next, we discuss barriers to recruiting representative study populations, including: (i) optimizing the screening pool, (ii) converting eligible participants to enrolled research subjects, and (iii) retaining subjects in a study. We specifically examine patient/community-, investigator-, and structural/institutional-level barriers. Finally, we summarize various best practices for enhancing inclusion of under-represented groups in clinical research, as well as future directions and research needs.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationThe Science of Health Disparities Research
Number of pages16
ISBN (Electronic)9781119374855
ISBN (Print)9781119374817
StatePublished - Jan 1 2021


  • clinical trials
  • ethnic minorities
  • inclusion standards
  • minority recruitment
  • racial ethnic group

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology


Dive into the research topics of 'Recruitment, Inclusion, and Diversity in Clinical Trials'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this