Regional Measures of Sexual-Orientation Bias Predict Where Same-Gender Couples Live

Jason S. Snyder, P. J. Henry

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Regional explicit and implicit bias are associated with real-world discrimination and marginalization. We extended this research area by focusing on sexual minorities and where same-gender couples live. Using data on 2,939 U.S. counties from Project Implicit and other publicly available sources, we found that measures with known associations with systemic anti–lesbian, gay, and bisexual (anti-LGB) bias are similarly associated with regional implicit and explicit anti-LGB bias. Furthermore, we found that fewer same-gender couples reside in counties with more explicit and implicit anti-LGB bias, above and beyond other factors that likely influence same-gender-couple residency. These findings further suggest that explicit and implicit measures of regional bias are capturing similar, if not the same, construct of a region’s culture of bias toward particular groups. Couched specifically within the ongoing systemic political antagonization of the lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, plus (LGBTQ+) community, these findings also highlight the importance of considering contextual (in addition to individual) factors that reinforce systemic inequality.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)794-808
Number of pages15
JournalPsychological Science
Issue number7
StatePublished - Jul 2023


  • Implicit Association Test
  • antigay attitudes
  • open data
  • regional-level bias
  • systemic bias

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Psychology


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