Reliability and Validity of a Material Resources Scale and Its Association With Depression Among Young Men Who Have Sex With Men: The P18 Cohort Study

Danielle C. Ompad, Joseph J. Palamar, Kristen D. Krause, Farzana Kapadia, Perry N. Halkitis

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Socioeconomic status (SES) is a fundamental cause of ill health, but an understudied determinant of health for gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM). Surprisingly, few studies have examined the relations between poverty and depression among young MSM. The aims of this study were to determine the reliability and validity of an 18-item Family Resource Scale (FRS) as a measure of SES among YMSM and examine the relations between SES and depression, while taking into account factors associated with resilience or risk for poor mental health. Reliability of the SES scale was determined with Cronbach’s alpha. Validity was assessed with factor analysis and bivariable comparisons with other SES measures. Multiple logistic regression was used to determine the relations between depressive symptomology (via the Beck Depression Inventory–II), SES, and gay-related psychosocial variables. In this racially/ethnically diverse sample (mean age = 21.8 years, 37.3% Hispanic/Latino, 30.5% White, 14.9% Black, and 17.0% other race/ethnicity), 70.8% reported incomes ≤ $10,000 and the mean FRS score was 4.1 (SD = 0.9, range 0-5). The FRS demonstrated reliability (α =.91) and criterion and construct validity. The Beck Depression Inventory–II rated 17.6% with depressive symptomology. Higher FRS scores were associated with a lower odds of depression (adjusted odds ratio = 0.58; 95% confidence interval = 0.46-0.74) in logistic regression models controlling for gay community affinity and internalized homophobia. This diverse sample of YMSM in New York City reported substantial financial hardship and those who were more gay-identified had fewer material resources. Fewer material resources and internalized homophobia were both associated with higher odds of depression.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1384-1397
Number of pages14
JournalAmerican Journal of Men's Health
Issue number5
StatePublished - Sep 1 2018


  • behavioral issues
  • drug use
  • physiological and endocrine disorders
  • quantitative research
  • research

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Health(social science)
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health


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