Removal Attacks on Logic Locking and Camouflaging Techniques

Muhammad Yasin, Bodhisatwa Mazumdar, Ozgur Sinanoglu, Jeyavijayan Rajendran

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


With the adoption of a globalized and distributed IC design flow, IP piracy, reverse engineering, and counterfeiting threats are becoming more prevalent. Logic obfuscation techniques including logic locking and IC camouflaging have been developed to address these emergent challenges. A major challenge for logic locking and camouflaging techniques is to resist Boolean satisfiability (SAT) based attacks that can circumvent state-of-the-art solutions within minutes. Over the past year, multiple SAT attack resilient solutions such as Anti-SAT and AND-tree insertion (ATI) have been presented. In this paper, we perform a security analysis of these countermeasures and show that they leave structural traces behind in their attempts to thwart the SAT attack. We present three attacks, namely 'signal probability skew' (SPS) attack, 'AppSAT guided removal (AGR) attack, and 'sensitization guided SAT' (SGS) attack', that can break Anti-SAT and ATI, within minutes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number8013714
Pages (from-to)517-532
Number of pages16
JournalIEEE Transactions on Emerging Topics in Computing
Issue number2
StatePublished - Apr 1 2020


  • Hardware security
  • IC camouflaging
  • SAT
  • boolean satisfiability
  • logic encryption
  • logic locking

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Computer Science (miscellaneous)
  • Information Systems
  • Human-Computer Interaction
  • Computer Science Applications


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