Resistant hypertension and sleep apnea: Pathophysiologic insights and strategic management

Stephen K. Williams, Joseph Ravenell, Girardin Jean-Louis, Ferdinand Zizi, James A. Underberg, Samy I. McFarlane, Gbenga Ogedegbe

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Resistant hypertension is common among adults with hypertension affecting up to 30% of patients. The treatment of resistant hypertension is important because suboptimal blood pressure control is the leading preventable cause of death worldwide. A frequent comorbid condition in patients with resistant hypertension is obstructive sleep apnea. The pathophysiology of sleep apnea-associated hypertension is characterized by sustained adrenergic activation and volume retention often posing treatment challenges in patients with resistant hypertension. This review will address some of the epidemiologic data associating apnea with the pathogenesis of resistant hypertension. Diagnosis and management of apnea and its associated hypertension will also be considered.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)64-69
Number of pages6
JournalCurrent Diabetes Reports
Issue number1
StatePublished - Feb 2011


  • Continuous positive airway pressure
  • Diuretics
  • Drug-resistant hypertension
  • Obesity
  • Sleep apnea
  • Sleep-disordered breathing

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Internal Medicine
  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism


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