Objective: This study aimed to demonstrate feasibility of free-breathing radial acquisition with respiratory motion-resolved compressed sensing reconstruction [extra-dimensional golden-angle radial sparse parallel imaging (XD-GRASP)] for multiphase dynamic gadolinium ethoxybenzyl diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA)-enhanced liver imaging, and to compare image quality to compressed sensing reconstruction with respiratory motion-averaging (GRASP) and prior conventional breath-held Cartesian-sampled data sets [BH volume interpolated breath-hold examination(VIBE)] in same patients. Subjects and Methods: In this Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act-compliant prospective study, 16 subjects underwent free-breathing continuous radial acquisition during Gd-EOB-DTPA injection and had prior BH-VIBE available. Acquired data were reconstructed using motion-averaging GRASP approach in which consecutive 84 spokes were grouped in each contrast-enhanced phase for a temporal resolution of approximately 14 seconds. Additionally, respiratory motion-resolved reconstruction was performed fromthe same k-space data by sorting each contrast-enhanced phase into multiple respiratory motion states using compressed sensing algorithm named XD-GRASP, which exploits sparsity along both the contrast-enhancement and respiratory-state dimensions. Contrast-enhanced dynamic multiphase XD-GRASP, GRASP, and BH-VIBE images were anonymized, pooled together in a random order, and presented to 2 board-certified radiologists for independent evaluation of image quality, with higher score indicating more optimal examination. Results: The XD-GRASP reconstructions had significantly (all P < 0.05) higher overall image quality scores compared to GRASP for early arterial (reader 1: 4.3 ± 0.6 vs 3.31 ± 0.6; reader 2: 3.81 ± 0.8 vs 3.38 ± 0.9) and late arterial (reader 1: 4.5 ± 0.6 vs 3.63 ± 0.6; reader 2: 3.56 ± 0.5 vs 2.88 ± 0.7) phases of enhancement for both readers. The XD-GRASP also had higher overall image quality score in portal venous phase, which was significant for reader 1 (4.44 ± 0.5 vs 3.75 ± 0.8; P = 0.002). In addition, the XD-GRASP had higher overall image quality score compared to BH-VIBE for early (reader 1: 4.3 ± 0.6 vs 3.88 ± 0.6; reader 2: 3.81 ± 0.8 vs 3.50 ± 1.0) and late (reader 1: 4.5 ± 0.6 vs 3.44 ± 0.6; reader 2: 3.56 ± 0.5 vs 2.94 ± 0.9) arterial phases. Conclusion: Free-breathing motion-resolved XD-GRASP reconstructions provide diagnostic high-quality multiphase images in patients undergoing Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced liver examination.
- Compressed-sensing reconstruction
- Dynamic liver MRI
- Free-breathing MRI
- GD-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI
- Motion-resolved compressed sensing reconstruction
- Radial acquisition
ASJC Scopus subject areas