Responsiveness without Representation: Evidence from Minimum Wage Laws in U.S. States

Gabor Simonovits, Andrew M. Guess, Jonathan Nagler

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


How well does public policy represent mass preferences in U.S. states? Current approaches provide an incomplete account of statehouse democracy because they fail to compare preferences and policies on meaningful scales. Here, we overcome this problem by generating estimates of Americans' preferences on the minimum wage and compare them to observed policies both within and across states. Because we measure both preferences and policies on the same scale (U.S. dollars), we can quantify both the association of policy outcomes with preferences across states (responsiveness) and their deviation within states (bias). We demonstrate that while minimum wages respond to corresponding preferences across states, policy outcomes are more conservative than preferences in each state, with the average policy bias amounting to about two dollars. We also show that policy bias is substantially smaller in states with access to direct democratic institutions.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)401-410
Number of pages10
JournalAmerican Journal of Political Science
Issue number2
StatePublished - Apr 2019

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Sociology and Political Science
  • Political Science and International Relations


Dive into the research topics of 'Responsiveness without Representation: Evidence from Minimum Wage Laws in U.S. States'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this