RIN4 homologs from important crop species differentially regulate the Arabidopsis NB-LRR immune receptor, RPS2

Maheen Alam, Jibran Tahir, Anam Siddiqui, Mazin Magzoub, Syed Shahzad-ul-Hussan, David Mackey, A. J. Afzal

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Key message: RIN4 homologs from important crop species differ in their ability to prevent ectopic activity of the nucleotide binding-leucine rich repeat resistance protein, RPS2. Abstract: Pathogens deploy virulence effectors to perturb host processes. Plants utilize intracellular resistance (R) proteins to recognize pathogen effectors either by direct interaction or indirectly via effector-mediated perturbations of host components. RPM1-INTERACTING PROTEIN4 (RIN4) is a plant immune regulator that mediates the indirect activation of multiple, independently evolved R-proteins by multiple, unrelated effector proteins. One of these, RPS2 (RESISTANT TO P. SYRINGAE2), is activated upon cleavage of Arabidopsis (At)RIN4 by the Pseudomonas syringae effector AvrRpt2. To gain insight into the AvrRpt2-RIN4-RPS2 defense-activation module, we compared the function of AtRIN4 with RIN4 homologs present in a diverse range of plant species. We selected seven homologs containing conserved features of AtRIN4, including two NOI (Nitrate induced) domains, each containing a predicted cleavage site for AvrRpt2, and a C-terminal palmitoylation site predicted to mediate membrane tethering of the proteins. Palmitoylation-mediated tethering of AtRIN4 to the plasma membrane and cleavage by AvrRpt2 are required for suppression and activation of RPS2, respectively. While all seven homologs are localized at the plasma membrane, only four suppress RPS2 when transiently expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana. All seven homologs are cleaved by AvrRpt2 and, for those homologs that are able to suppress RPS2, cleavage relieves suppression of RPS2. Further, we demonstrate that the membrane-tethered, C-terminal AvrRpt2-generated cleavage fragment is sufficient for the suppression of RPS2. Lastly, we show that the membrane localization of RPS2 is unaffected by its suppression or activation status.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2341-2356
Number of pages16
JournalPlant Cell Reports
Issue number12
StatePublished - Dec 2021


  • AvrRpt2
  • Nicotiana benthamiana
  • Pseudomonas syringae
  • R-protein
  • RIN4 homologs
  • RPS2
  • Arabidopsis Proteins/genetics
  • Lipoylation
  • Plant Immunity/physiology
  • Sequence Homology, Amino Acid
  • Bacterial Proteins/genetics
  • Plant Proteins/genetics
  • Cell Membrane/metabolism
  • Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins/genetics
  • Plants, Genetically Modified
  • Tobacco/genetics
  • Crops, Agricultural/genetics
  • Pseudomonas syringae/genetics

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Agronomy and Crop Science
  • Plant Science


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