In this paper, we propose a novel method for robust document image authentication. In the proposed method, characters and symbols on a binary document are first grouped into different classes based on k-means clustering in the feature space. Labels are then assigned to the different classes. An ordered sequence of labels formed from the characters and symbols on the document is then used to compute a digital signature. This is achieved by using a cryptographic hash function and a secret key. The computed signature can be appended at the end of an electronic document file, or printed on a hardcopy document in the form of a bar code. Using this method, we will be able to detect any intentional content alteration to the document, but at the same time tolerate moderate amount of noise introduced by printing, scanning, and photocopying of the document. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.