S100β protein expression: Gender- and age-related daily changes

M. I. Nogueira, S. Y. Abbas, L. G M Campos, W. Allemandi, P. Lawson, S. H. Takada, E. C. Azmitia

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


S100β is a soluble protein released by glial cells mainly under the activation of the 5-HT1A receptor. It has been reported as a neuro-trophic and -tropic factor that promotes neurite maturation and outgrowth during development. This protein also plays a role in axonal stability and the plasticity underlying long-term potentiation in adult brains. The ability of S100β to rapidly regulate neuronal morphology raises the interesting point of whether there are daily rhythm or gender differences in S100β level in the brain. To answer this question, the S100β expression in adult female and male rats, as well as in adult female CD-21 and S100β -/- female mice, were investigated. Scintillation counting and morphometric analysis of the immunoreactivity of S100β, showed rhythmic daily expression. The female and male rats showed opposite cycles. Females presented the highest value at the beginning of the rest phase (5:00 h), while in males the maximum value appeared in the beginning of the motor activity period (21:00 h). These results confirm previous S100β evaluations in human serum and cerebrospinal fluid reporting the protein's function as a biomarker for brain damage (Gazzolo et al. in Clin Chem 49:967-970, 2003; Clin Chim Acta 330:131-133, 2003; Pediatr Res 58:1170-1174, 2005), similar behavior was also observed for GFAP in relation to Alzheimer Disease (Fukuyama et al. in Eur Neurol 46:35-38, 2001). The data should be taken into account when considering S100β as a biomarker of health condition. In addition, the results raise questions on which structure or condition imposes these rhythms as well as on the physiological meaning of the observed gender differences.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1355-1362
Number of pages8
JournalNeurochemical Research
Issue number8
StatePublished - Aug 2009


  • Biomarkers
  • Daily rhythms
  • Neuroplasticity
  • Optic density
  • S immunerreactivity
  • S100β protein

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience


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