Saliva and inhibition of HIV-1 infection: Molecular mechanisms

Diane C. Shugars, S. P. Sweet, D. Malamud, S. H. Kazmi, K. Page-Shafer, S. J. Challacombe

    Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


    Oral fluids are rarely a vehicle for HIV-1 infection in vivo, unlike other mucosal secretions. This unique property raises questions regarding (1) the molecular mechanisms responsible for the lack of salivary transmission, (2) the extent to which oral immunological responses mirror responses at other mucosal sites, (3) the use of promising salivary markers of HIV-1 disease progression, (4) the relationship between oral and blood viral loads, (5) cofactors that influence oro-genital transmission, and (6) the feasibility of oral-based antibody testing for HIV-1 diagnosis in the home. This paper discusses these questions and provides background summaries, findings from new studies, consensus opinions, practical relevance to developing countries, and suggestions for future research agenda on each of the key topics.

    Original languageEnglish (US)
    Pages (from-to)169-175
    Number of pages7
    JournalOral Diseases
    Issue numberSUPPL. 2
    StatePublished - 2002


    • Antibody testing
    • Antiviral
    • HIV
    • Mucosal Immunity
    • Saliva
    • Transmission

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Otorhinolaryngology
    • General Dentistry


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