Salivary gland cytokine expression in NOD and normal BALB/c mice

Seiichi Yamano, Jane C. Atkinson, Bruce J. Baum, Philip C. Fox

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The autoimmune diabetes-prone nonobese diabetic (NOD) mouse develops a chronic lymphocytic infiltration of endocrine and exocrine glands. The objectives of this study were to characterize the salivary immune infiltration and cytokine expression of NOD mice and compare these findings to those of normal BALB/c mice. A decline in salivary flow rates in NOD mice began between 8 and 12 weeks of age. At this same time lymphocytic foci are detectable in the salivary glands. Lymphocytic infiltration in the salivary glands of NOD mice increased with age and simultaneously salivary function declined. No lymphocytic infiltration was seen in BALB/c salivary tissues. Messenger RNA expression of several inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-2, IL-10, interferon-γ, and tumor necrosis factor-α was detected in the submandibular glands of both NOD and BALB/c mice by the reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. IL-4 synthesis was also present in some tissues. Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated the intense expression of inflammatory cytokines within lymphocytic infiltrates and epithelial cells of all NOD mice. Minimal expression of the same cytokines was detected only occasionally in BALB/c tissues stained in parallel. These results demonstrate cytokine expression in the salivary glands of normal mice and suggest that the overexpression of these inflammatory cytokines is likely involved in the development and progression of the organ-localized autoimmunity in the salivary glands of NOD mice.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)265-275
Number of pages11
JournalClinical Immunology
Issue number3
StatePublished - Sep 1999


  • Autoimmunity
  • Cytokine
  • NOD mouse
  • Salivary gland
  • Sjogren's syndrome

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Immunology


Dive into the research topics of 'Salivary gland cytokine expression in NOD and normal BALB/c mice'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this