Saturation of the biological response to orthodontic forces and its effect on the rate of tooth movement

M. Alikhani, B. Alyami, I. S. Lee, S. Almoammar, T. Vongthongleur, M. Alikhani, S. Alansari, C. Sangsuwon, M. Y. Chou, E. Khoo, A. Boskey, C. C. Teixeira

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objectives: Investigate the expression and activity of inflammatory markers in response to different magnitudes of orthodontic forces and correlate this response with other molecular and cellular events during orthodontic tooth movement. Setting and Sample Population: CTOR Laboratory; 245 Sprague Dawley male rats. Methods and Materials: Control, sham, and 5 different experimental groups received different magnitudes of force on the right maxillary first molar using a coil spring. In the sham group, the spring was not activated. Control group did not receive any appliance. At days 1, 3, 7, 14, and 28, the maxillae were collected for RNA and protein analysis, immunohistochemistry, and micro-CT. Results: There was a linear relation between the force and the level of cytokine expression at lower magnitudes of force. Higher magnitudes of force did not increase the expression of cytokines. Activity of CCL2, CCL5, IL-1, TNF-α, RANKL, and number of osteoclasts reached a saturation point in response to higher magnitudes of force, with unchanged rate of tooth movement. Conclusion: After a certain magnitude of force, there is a saturation in the biological response, and higher forces do not increase inflammatory markers, osteoclasts, nor the amount of tooth movement. Therefore, higher forces to accelerate the rate of tooth movement are not justified.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)8-17
Number of pages10
JournalOrthodontics and Craniofacial Research
Issue numberS1
StatePublished - Apr 1 2015


  • Cytokines
  • Force
  • Gene expression
  • Orthodontics
  • Osteoclasts
  • Tooth movement

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Orthodontics
  • Surgery
  • Oral Surgery
  • Otorhinolaryngology


Dive into the research topics of 'Saturation of the biological response to orthodontic forces and its effect on the rate of tooth movement'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this