Scale construction for measuring attitude, beliefs, perception of control, and intention to exercise

M. S. Kerner, A. H. Grossman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background. Using the Theory of Planned Behavior as a framework, the Fitness Attitude, Expectations of Others, Perceived Behavioral Control, and Intention to Exercise Scales were developed. Professionals in exercise physiology generated items for the instruments. Experts in clinical psychology and exercise physiology established content validity. Methods. Each of the scale items is phrased in a rating scale format. Both unipolar and bipolar scales were developed with seven response choices offered. Following the pilot testing and subsequent revisions, 19 items were retained in the Fitness Attitude Scale, seven items were retained in the Expectations of Others Scale, three items were retained in the Perceived Behavioral Control Scale, and 11 items were retained in the Intention to Exercise Scale. Results. Correlation coefficients for the total instruments were significantly positive for stability and internal consistency, ranging from α=0.75 to α=0.87. Exercise specialists may wish to implement the use of these scales in their practices to develop intervention techniques for the promotion of positive fitness attitudes, good perception of control over the ability to exercise, and good intentions to exercise. Conclusions. The positive results in this study's sample suggest that these scales are ready for application in the field, but they should be pilot-tested with each group to check reliability with the particular population.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)124-131
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
Issue number1
StatePublished - 2001


  • Adherence
  • Attitude
  • Intention
  • Measurement
  • Perceived control
  • Physical activity
  • Scales
  • Subjective norm
  • Theory of planned behavior

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
  • Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation


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