Science for all, including students from non-English-Language backgrounds

Okhee Lee, Sandra H. Fradd

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Standards-based reform across subject areas has an overarching goal of achieving high academic standards for all students. Although much is known about what constitutes high academic standards, little attention has been given to the attainment of educational equity for all students. In this article, we propose the notion of instructional congruence as a way of making academic content accessible, meaningful, and relevant for diverse learners. Although our discussion considers students from non-English-language backgrounds (NELB) in science education, comparable approaches can be applied to other diverse student groups and other subject areas. We discuss an agenda for research, practice, and policy in promoting high standards for all students across subject areas.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)12-21
Number of pages10
JournalEducational Researcher
Issue number4
StatePublished - 1998

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education


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