Secret and public key image watermarking schemes for image authentication and ownership verification

Ping Wah Wong, Nasir Memon

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


We describe a watermarking scheme for ownership verification and authentication. Depending on the desire of the user, the watermark can be either visible or-invisible. The scheme can detect any modification made to the image and indicate the specific locations that have been modified. If the correct key is specified in the watermark extraction procedure, then an output image is returned showing a proper watermark, indicating the image is authentic and has not been changed since the insertion of the watermark. Any modification would be reflected in a corresponding error in the watermark. If the key is incorrect, or if the image was not watermarked, or if the watermarked image is cropped, the watermark extraction algorithm will return an image that resembles random noise. Since it requires a user key during both the insertion and the extraction procedures, it is not possible for an unauthorized user to insert a new watermark or alter the existing watermarks so that the resulting image will pass the test. We present secret key and public key versions of the technique.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1593-1601
Number of pages9
JournalIEEE Transactions on Image Processing
Issue number10
StatePublished - Oct 2001

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Software
  • Computer Graphics and Computer-Aided Design


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