Security Closure of IC Layouts Against Hardware Trojans

Fangzhou Wang, Qijing Wang, Bangqi Fu, Shui Jiang, Xiaopeng Zhang, Lilas Alrahis, Ozgur Sinanoglu, Johann Knechtel, Tsung Yi Ho, Evangeline F.Y. Young

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution


Due to cost benefits, supply chains of integrated circuits (ICs) are largely outsourced nowadays. However, passing ICs through various third-party providers gives rise to many threats, like piracy of IC intellectual property or insertion of hardware Trojans, i.e., malicious circuit modifications. In this work, we proactively and systematically harden the physical layouts of ICs against post-design insertion of Trojans. Toward that end, we propose a multiplexer-based logic-locking scheme that is (i) devised for layout-level Trojan prevention, (ii) resilient against state-of-The-Art, oracle-less machine learning attacks, and (iii) fully integrated into a tailored, yet generic, commercial-grade design flow. Our work provides in-depth security and layout analysis on a challenging benchmark suite. We show that ours can render layouts resilient, with reasonable overheads, against Trojan insertion in general and also against second-order attacks (i.e., adversaries seeking to bypass the locking defense in an oracle-less setting). We release our layout artifacts for independent verification[29].

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationISPD 2023 - Proceedings of the 2023 International Symposium on Physical Design
PublisherAssociation for Computing Machinery
Number of pages9
ISBN (Electronic)9781450399784
StatePublished - Mar 26 2023
Event32nd ACM International Symposium on Physical Design, ISPD 2023 - Virtual, Online, United States
Duration: Mar 26 2023Mar 29 2023

Publication series

NameProceedings of the International Symposium on Physical Design


Conference32nd ACM International Symposium on Physical Design, ISPD 2023
Country/TerritoryUnited States
CityVirtual, Online


  • Hardware Trojans
  • ISPD'22 contest
  • Logic locking
  • Physical design
  • Security closure

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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