Segmentation-Free OCT-Volume-Based Deep Learning Model Improves Pointwise Visual Field Sensitivity Estimation

Zhiqi Chen, Eitan Shemuelian, Gadi Wollstein, Yao Wang, Hiroshi Ishikawa, Joel S. Schuman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Purpose: The structural changes measured by optical coherence tomography (OCT) are related to functional changes in visual fields (VFs). This study aims to accurately assess the structure-function relationship and overcome the challenges brought by the minimal measurable level (floor effect) of segmentation-dependent OCT measurements commonly used in prior studies. Methods: We developed a deep learning model to estimate the functional performance directly from three-dimensional (3D) OCT volumes and compared it to the model trained with segmentation-dependent two-dimensional (2D) OCT thickness maps. Moreover, we proposed a gradient loss to utilize the spatial information of VFs. Results: Our 3D model was significantly better than the 2D model both globally and pointwise regarding both mean absolute error (MAE = 3.11 + 3.54 vs. 3.47 ± 3.75 dB, P < 0.001) and Pearson’s correlation coefficient (0.80 vs. 0.75, P < 0.001). On a subset of test data with floor effects, the 3D model showed less influence from floor effects than the 2D model (MAE = 5.24 ± 3.99 vs. 6.34 ± 4.58 dB, P < 0.001, and correlation 0.83 vs. 0.74, P < 0.001). The gradient loss improved the estimation error for low-sensitivity values. Furthermore, our 3D model outperformed all prior studies. Conclusions: By providing a better quantitative model to encapsulate the structure-function relationship more accurately, our method may help deriving VF test surrogates. Translational Relevance: DL-based VF surrogates not only benefit patients by reducing the testing time of VFs but also allow clinicians to make clinical judgments without the inherent limitations of VFs.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number28
JournalTranslational Vision Science and Technology
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jun 2023


  • deep learning
  • ocular imaging
  • structure-function relationship

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Ophthalmology


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