Seismic upgrading of existing masonry structures: A state-of-the-art review

P. D. Gkournelos, T. C. Triantafillou, D. A. Bournas

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


This paper presents a state-of-the-art review on the available seismic upgrading techniques of existing masonry structures, which comprise a very common structural material including most of the surviving historic structures worldwide. Due to their increased age and vulnerability, masonry buildings and structures are generally in greater need of structural retrofitting than newer ones constructed with more modern materials. The discussed techniques are divided into three major categories, according to the way they affect the building's load-bearing mechanism. The first one includes those which target individual structural elements aiming to enhance their cyclic behavior. The second one includes those techniques which aim to improve the overall structural integrity of a given structure. Finally, methods which aim at reducing the internal seismically induced forces using special devices comprise the final category. Both conventional and novel upgrading techniques are covered, but the emphasis is clearly on the latter, while the integration of seismic upgrading techniques with measures for energy upgrading is briefly discussed for masonry building envelopes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number107428
JournalSoil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering
StatePublished - Oct 2022


  • Buildings
  • Masonry
  • Seismic retrofitting
  • Strengthening

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Civil and Structural Engineering
  • Geotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology
  • Soil Science


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