Self-motion disturbs the stability of retinal images by inducing optic flow. Objects of interest need to be fixated or tracked, yet these eye movements can infringe on the experienced retinal flow that is important for visual navigation. Separating the components of optic flow caused by an eye movement from those due to self-motion, as well as using optic flow for visual navigation while simultaneously maintaining visual acuity on near targets, represent key challenges for the visual system. Here we summarize recent advances in our understanding of how the visuomotor and vestibulomotor systems function and interact, given the complex task of compensating for instabilities of retinal images, which typically vary as a function of retinal location and differ for each eye.
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