Semen says: Assessing the accuracy of adolescents' self-reported sexual abstinence using a semen Y-chromosome biomarker

Janet E. Rosenbaum, Jonathan M. Zenilman, Eve Rose, Gina M. Wingood, Ralph J. Diclemente

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objective Researchers often assess condom use only among participants who report recent sexual behaviour, excluding participants who report no recent vaginal sex or who did not answer questions about their sexual behaviour, but self-reported sexual behaviour may be inaccurate. This study uses a semen Y-chromosome biomarker to assess semen exposure among participants who reported sexual abstinence or did not report their sexual behaviour. Methods This prospective cohort study uses data from 715 sexually active African-American female adolescents in Atlanta, surveyed at baseline, 6months and 12months. Participants completed a 40min interview and were tested for semen Y-chromosome with PCR from a self-administered vaginal swab. We predicted Y-chromosome test results from self-reported sexual behaviour using within-subject panel regression. Results Among the participants who reported abstinence from vaginal sex in the past 14days, 9.4% tested positive for semen Y-chromosome. Among item non-respondents, 6.3% tested positive for semen Y-chromosome. Women who reported abstinence and engaged in item non-response regarding their sexual behaviour had respectively 62% and 78% lower odds of testing positive for Y-chromosome (OR 0.38 (0.21 to 0.67), OR 0.22 (0.12 to 0.40)), controlling for smoking, survey wave and non-coital sexual behaviours reported during abstinence. Conclusions Adolescents who report sexual abstinence under-report semen exposure. Research should validate self-reported sexual behaviour with biomarkers. Adolescents who engage in item non-response regarding vaginal sex test positive for semen Y-chromosome at similar rates, which supports the practice of grouping non-respondents with adolescents reporting abstinence in statistical analysis. Trial registration number NCT00633906.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)145-147
Number of pages3
JournalSexually transmitted infections
Issue number2
StatePublished - Mar 2017



ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Dermatology
  • Infectious Diseases


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